The Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ proposes deploying remote-controlled fleets of Turbofoil® equipped vessels utilizing Hybrid HydroKinetic energy conversion. Here we evaluate the state of the art of Unmanned Marine Vehicles (UMV's), UMV Research and UMV manufacturers for suitability for particularly Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ applications, exhibiting several potential strategic partners whose systems are in the field, TRL9 .
Author and/or Affiliation
|Manley / Battelle||
In Unmanned Surface Vehicles, 15 Years of Development, Manley states the case as referenced by Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ that UMV crews often execute missions in a supervisory control approach with usually the vessel low-level control (e.g.rudder actuation) computerized while the overall behavior (e.g. waypoint selection) managed by an operator. “Mowing the lawn” never becomes dull for a USV whereas it can drain even the most dedicated helmsman. This approach allows, theoretically, for one operator to oversee many USVs, thus providing a significant “force multiplier” effect.
Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ asserts this approach allows, theoretically, for one operator to oversee many UMVs, thus providing a significant economy of scale effect, achieving the "Law of Large Numbers" success as claimed in the geographic location section, considering Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short-Term Variability of Solar Power.
|Glotzbach et al. / Fraunhofer Center for Applied Systems Technology, Ilmenau/Germany||
In Multi System Mission Control for Teams of Unmanned Marine Vehicles – Software Structure for Online Replanning of Mission Plans, the authors Glotzbach et al. give an account of the proceedings in the European Research Project GREX, which aims to realize cooperating teams of single autonomous marine vehicles. Starting from the basics, a general overview of different concepts of autonomy and the realization of a simulator for Multiple Unmanned Marine Vehicles, the authors now turn to the GREX dedicated hardware and software technologies that need to be integrated into the already existing vehicles to enable cooperative behavior. The realization of cooperative Multiple Unmanned Marine Vehicles (MUMVs) is a real challenge, due to the conditions of the marine environment. The authors define the necessary steps of developments to enable already existing, single autonomous vehicles to participate in a team mission. The authors also describe the design of the control software and put an emphasis on the task of Online Replanning of the vehicles’ mission plans. This Online Replanning is one of the critical issues in the realization of vehicle teams, as existing single autonomous vehicles usually do not use this functionality.
Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ recognizes the value of this research and innately understands the critical application of this technology and that testing and redesign for adaptation to Turbofoil® remote control applications could take about two years in the development timeline, TRL7.
|Antonio Zangrilli, Andrea Picini, Alessio Gugliotta / Innova spa, Roma/Italy||In Exploitation Model for Multiple Unmanned Marine Vehicles Technologies: the GREX Case, the authors Antonio Zangrilli et al. provide a preliminary overview of a still on-going methodology for the market exploitation of Multiple Unmanned Marine Vehicles (MUMVs), developed in the framework of the GREX research project. GREX is an R&D initiative supported by the European Commission aiming at the development of a innovative middleware system to coordinate groups of heterogeneous unmanned marine vehicles working in cooperation. The proposed exploitation model provides a solution to identify the project partner's role as well as their market approach coordination when deploying the project results, taking into account of their institutional mission, the project results market lead-times and commercial strategies. The application of the proposed exploitation model to the GREX case produced the first results and, in particular, allowed the identification of two possible exploitation plans: complete solution and user interface. These two plans will be addressed by two distinct partners: ATLAS and SEEBYTE, respectively. To complete the proposed exploitation model, future work will focus on identifying the actual business opportunities for the GREX results and developing the market strategy accordingly.|
|Michael R. Benjamin, Henrik Schmidt, Paul M. Newman, and John J. Leonard / Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, Rhode Island||
In Nested Autonomy for Unmanned Marine Vehicles with MOOS-IvP, the authors Michael R. Benjamin et al. describe the MOOS-IvP autonomy software for unmannedmarine vehicles and its use in large scale ocean sensing systems. MOOS-IvP is composed of two open-source software projects funded by the Office of Naval Research. MOOS provides a core autonomy middleware capability, and the MOOS project additionally provides a set of ubiquitous infrastructure utilities. The IvP Helm is the primary component of an additional set of capabilities implemented to form a full marine autonomy suite known as MOOS-IvP. This software and architecture are platform and mission agnostic and allow for a scalable nesting of unmanned vehicle nodes to form large-scale, long-endurance ocean sensing systems composed of heterogeneous platform types with varying degrees of communications connectivity, bandwidth, and latency. MOOS-IvP is composed of two distinct open-source
software projects. The Mission Oriented Operating Suite (MOOS) is a product of the Mobile Robotics Group at the University of Oxford and provides core middleware capabilities in a publish–subscribe architecture, as well as several applications ubiquitous in unmanned marine robotic and land robotic applications using MOOS. Additional MOOS applications, including the IvP Helm, are available in the MOOS-IvP project. IvP stands for Interval Programming and refers to the multiobjective optimization method used by the IvP Helm for arbitrating between competing behaviors in its behavior-based architecture. The authors described two paradigms and two architectures and descriptions of their fielded implementations. The payload autonomy paradigm includes (a) the separation of autonomy sensing and decision making from the problem of vehicle control and navigation, (b) the MOOS publish–subscribe middleware for allowing independent development of sensing, communication, and autonomous decision-making software, and (c) the behavior-based IvP-Helm for independent development of autonomy modules. The nested autonomy paradigm is an approach for implementing a system of unmanned platforms for large-scale, long-endurance, autonomous sensing applications. It exploits the platform-independent payload autonomy paradigm to field a network of heterogeneous nodes to address the limitations of unpredictable, environmentally dependent sensing and low-bandwidth communications in the underwater domain. The IvP-Helm is a behavior-based architecture, unique in its use of the IvPmodel for multiobjective optimization for resolving competing autonomy behaviors. It is also an open-source project that includes many well-tested vehicle behaviors and autonomy tools for creating, debugging, and analyzing autonomy capabilities.
Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ recognizes that between GREX, MOOS, and IvP-Helm open source projects, a substantial amount of UMV fleet control middleware already exists under open source licensing terms, and will seek to take advantage in the implementation of mobile hybrid remote controlled vehicles.
|Paul Michael Newman / Department of Ocean Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology||
In MOOS - Mission Orientated Operating Suite The author Paul M. Newman describes MOOS as an umbrella term for a set of libraries and applications designed to facilitate research in the mobile robotic domain. The spectrum of functionality provided ranges over low-level, multi-platform communications, dynamic control, high precision navigation and path planning, concurrent mission task arbitration and execution, mission logging and playback.
The first part of the paper describes the underlying philosophy of MOOS and the resulting perceived benefits. The work then moves on to describe the details of the design and implementations of core system components. There then follows a set of high level descriptions of principal mission-oriented MOOS processes. Collectively these processes constitute a resilient, distributed and coordinated suite of software suitable for in-the-field deployment of sub-sea and land research robots.
MOOS can provide a flexible research tool for some time to come. It is an evolving project and under continual improvement and expansion. For example the near future should see its application to multiple vehicle scenarios in both land and sub-sea domains.
|A. Pascoal, C. Silvestre and P. Oliveira||In Vehicle and mission control of single and multiple autonomous marine robots, the authors A. Pascoal, C. Silvestre and P. Oliveira provided an overview of theoretical and practical problems in the field of marine robotics with a focus on the areas of vehicle and mission control. At the vehicle control level, four categories of problems were introduced: vertical and horizontal plane control, pose control, trajectory tracking and path following, and coordinated motion control of multiple marine robots. Recent advances in linear and nonlinear control theory were shown to provide solid bases for their solution. The technical machinery needed borrows from gain scheduling control theory, linear matrix inequalities, Lyapunov based controller design, backstepping and graph theory. At the Mission Control level, the chapter called attention to the challenging problem of bringing together time- and event-driven systems under a unifying framework. Petri nets were presented as the tool par excellence to tackle this problem, from both an analysis and synthesis viewpoint. To ground the presentation on practical issues, the chapter included the results of tests carried out at sea with prototype AUVs and ASCs. The picture that emerges is that theory and practice must go hand in hand if one is to develop a future breed of marine vehicles capable of operating reliably at sea in a cooperative manner. The challenging problems of cooperative motion control and navigation under severe communications constraints will certainly guide much of the research in the years to come.|
|Michael R. Benjamin, Joseph A. Curcio, John J. Leonard, Paul M. Newman / Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, Rhode Island||In Navigation of Unmanned Marine Vehicles in Accordance with the Rules of the Road the authors Michael R. Benjamin et al. describe the in-field autonomous operation of unmanned marine vehicles in accordance with convention for safe and proper collision avoidance as prescribed by the Coast Guard Collision Regulations (COLREGS). These rules are written to train and guide safe human operation of marine vehicles and are heavily dependent on human common sense in determining rule applicability as well as rule execution, especially when multiple rules apply simultaneously. The authors investigated the problem of autonomous collision avoidance and navigation for autonomous surface craft. They have presented a novel method using IvP-based multi-objective optimization to coordinate distinct vehicle behaviors representing both task execution and established human protocol for safe navigation. This paper also provides, to our knowledge, the first ever demonstration of such a system on a physical marine platform.|
|Navy Author / U.S. Dept. of the Navy||In THE NAVY UNMANNED SURFACE VEHICLE (USV) MASTER PLAN, The Navy describes the far future of UMV's, and their applications to the U.S. Navy. While the paper did not anticiapte USV's completing oceanic energy conversion missions, the Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ will fully comply with the findings, recommendations, and standards put forth in this document in order to eventually serve the energy needs of the U.S. Navy fleet.|
|Volker Bertram / ENSIETA||In Unmanned Surface Vehicles – A Survey, Volker Bertram gives a brief survey of UMV's, covers both actually built and projected USVs. Most USV developments are found in the USA. USVs remain so far limited to small to medium vessels with limited autonomy. Generally the larger USV platforms tend to be more stable and offer more mission functionality. An additional consideration for platform stability is the basic design of the USV.|
|Brochure / Opto 22||In Case Study: Unmanned Ocean Vehicles, The controller manufacturer, Opto 22 describes the Opto 22 SNAP PAC Controls as implemented in a New Type of Marine Vessel, the Unmanned Ocean Vehicle, UOV built by the founder of UOV Inc., Payne Kilbourne. The paper also describes to some detail, the NMEA 0183, defined by and controlled by the National Marine Electronics Association, a specification for communication amongst marine instrumentation such as echo sounders, sonar, anemometers, autopilot systems, and GPS systems. Under the NMEA 0183 standard, data is sent from one sender to multiple receivers using ASCII based, serial communication strings. Essentially the entire vessel side SCADA hardware and software at a cursory view is depicted.|
Therefore, in our analysis of developmental effort for unmanned marine vehicle fleet operation, we assess the basic research already exists with practically all interfaces specified in various standards. Thus adapting the existing open source middleware may still take multiple man-years, but can be regarded as low risk because of no fundamental scientific research required.
|Atlas Elektronik GmbH||Atlas Elektronik GmbH sponsored the Multiple UMV -- "Grex" project (see Exploitation Model for Multiple Unmanned Marine Vehicles Technologies: the GREX Case above), and also manufactures a command and control module for "UxV's", the CCM.|
|MUNIN Project||MUNIN Project – Maritime Unmanned Navigation through Intelligence in Networks – is a collaborative research project, co-funded by the European Commissions under its Seventh Framework Programme. MUNIN aims to develop and verify a concept for an autonomous ship, which is defined as a vessel primarily guided by automated on-board decision systems but controlled by a remote operator in a shore side control station.|
|ASV - Autonomous Surface Vehicles, Ltd.||ASV - Autonomous Surface Vehicles, Ltd. designs and constructs unmanned marine vehicle systems for commercial, government and military customers.|
|MOST Autonomous Vessels Ltd.||MOST Autonomous Vessels Ltd. Autonaut® provides a unique solution to the speed/payload/power/endurance capability balance for autonomous surface vessels (ASV). Autonaut® is cost effective, ‘green’, and a UK based technology being developed by MOST (Autonomous Vessels) Ltd. in association with MARS/NOC, ASV and SAMS.|
|Marine Autonomous and Robotic Systems (MARS)||Marine Autonomous and Robotic Systems (MARS), part of National Marine Facilities at NOC, provides autonomous and remotely operated vehicles to the UK’s marine science community on behalf of the Natural Environment Research Council. AUV management, design, improvement, and operation and risk and reliability assessment are some of MARS endeavors.|
|National Oceanography Centre (NOC)||National Oceanography Centre (NOC) undertakes integrated ocean research and technology development from the coast to the deep ocean. Working with other NERC research facilities, NOC provides long-term marine science capability including: major facilities; sustained ocean observing, mapping and survey; data management, and scientific advice.|
|Scottish Association of Marine Science (SAMS)||Scottish Association of Marine Science (SAMS) makes extensive use of autonomous vehicles in their research, extensively tested in Southampton Water and off Oban, Hebrides.|
|Cosworth, UK||Cosworth, UK, manufactures UAV engines, and also has interest in performance marine having installed their sailing vessel datalogger and controller including embedded onboard wind processing algorithm, the LightWave Realtime Processor in the America's Cup contender Artemis AC72.|
L-3 a large defense contractor, most applicably does UMV's, Unmannned Target systems, and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS's). By combining the capabilities of more than 25 business units, L-3 has become a fully integrated platform provider for UAS programs. L-3’s full range of products and services for UAS platforms includes training and simulation and comprehensive operational support, as well as remote video terminals, video management systems, communications and data links, and electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) and electronic warfare sensors that link ground troops to command and control hubs.
Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses that repurposing this design for adaptation to a fleet of UMV's would require about 2 years.
|Opto 22||Opto 22 produces SCADA controller software and hardware such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's) for general purposes. In Case Study: Unmanned Ocean Vehicles, Opto 22 describes the Opto 22 SNAP PAC Controls as implemented in a UMV (see above).|
|SolarSailor||SolarSailor features PV Wingsails & UMV's (Robert Dane, U.S. Patent 7,789,723 inventor). This demonstration vehicle boasts solar power and autonomous operation. Their offerings include other innovative technology, such has hybrid electrical and internal combustion marine drive trains.|
|Forgacs Group||Forgacs Group does marine engineering foremost along with other defense related research in Australia. Forgacs group works mainly in the field of shipbuilding. Forgacs and ASV above teamed together to build the SSUOV.|
|Marine Advanced Research, Inc.||Marine Advanced Research, Inc. has designed and builds an Unmanned wave-adaptive modular vessel, the WAM-V®. This features a modular payload rack, scalability: WAM-V USVs can be built in different sizes to match payload requirements, and reduced footprint: up to 75% less volume for shipping, storage and/or transportation aboard a larger vessel.|
|SubSea7||SubSea7, a seabed-to-surface engineering, construction and services contractor to the offshore energy industry worldwide, has a comprehensive range of mobile assets including a fleet of over 150 Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV's) and other autonomous vehicles|
|SeeByte||SeeByte has achieved a position of leadership in the development of smart software for remote or unmanned assets in both the military and energy sectors, and provides products and services to major government and commercial clients around the world.|
|Science Applications International Corporation||Science Applications International Corporation , scientific, engineering, and technology applications, Mil/Energy/Envir & UMV's, instrument landing systems, data package development and logistics, UMV.|
|General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc.||General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. is famous for their UAV Predator drones. They are headquartered in San Diego, in relative proximity to Integrated Power Technology Corporation™.|
|Emerson Network Power||Emerson Network Power, Embedded Computing - Compact PCI, VME bus for UMV|
Liquid Robotics . UMV / meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) sensors. Liquid Robotics UMV Research
Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses TRL7 to adapt, for instance, Liquid Robotics technology to the Turbofoil® Hybrid HydroKinetic energy conversion system about one to two years to engineer.
|BMT Group||BMT Group, a leading international design, engineering, science and risk management consultancy, formed in 1985 from the merger of the UK's British Ship Research Association and National Maritime Institute, has core strength in Specialist Vessel Design, Offshore Renewable Energy Vessels and especially Offshore Renewable Energy Projects including MetOcean and Navigation and managing a European Research UMV project.|