1. Configuration - Energy Storage Options


   Here we evaluate candidate Energy Storage Options for suitability for various mobile structure configurations. The Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ herein evaluates the following Energy Storage (including hydrogen and ammonia generation) Technologies:


Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS); Electrolysis-to-Haber Bosch (EHB); Direct Ammonia Fuel Cells (DAFC)


   The energy storage medium exhibiting the highest energy density presently is Anhydrous Ammonia. The NH3 molecule contains three hydrogen atoms for every Nitrogen atom, 17.65%wt and remains a liquid over ambient temperatures under moderate pressure, <250 psig. The many advantages of Anhydrous Ammonia have been documented here, here, and here. Thus choosing Solid State Ammonia Synthesis as the energy storage mechanism implies meeting the needs of both the fertilizer and nascent liquid fuels markets. Many researchers now take interest in this energy intensive commodity for its numerous advantages over all other energy storage technologies.


Company Name

Technology Specifications

NHThree LLC Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS), the Alaskan Pilot Plant goal is demonstrating TRL6, potential scaleup to achieve $200K per metric tonne (Mt) anhydrous ammonia (NH3) per day capital cost, 7.5 kWh/kg(NH3) equating to 75% conversion efficiency for the High Heat Value (HHV) of Ammonia, with low non-energy O&M cost, whereby Renewable Energy can be stored as liquid NH3, a carbon-free hydrogen-based fuel, at both small and large scale, in common, propane-grade steel tanks at 10 bar. "Liquid NH3 energy storage is at much lower capital cost than hydrogen or any competing form of electricity storage." Production of current-carrying Proton-Conducting Ceramic (PCC) tubes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is well-established; PCC tubes for SSAS are similar. NH3 - fueled ICE gensets and direct-ammonia fuel cells have been demonstrated. Thus, commercial availability in a limited size range (kWe input; kg to Mt NH3 per day output), within 2-3 years.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses that testing and redesign for robustness to greater than 3g(rms) shock and vibration environments could add a year to development timeline for oceanic applications, with low temperature testing demonstrated at the Alaskan Pilot Plant. Candidate SSAS configurations of mobile hybrid structures will thus be evaluated specific to: 7.5 kWh/kg(NH3); $1,200,000 capital cost (6 metric tonnes per day production); and an approximate NH3 spot price of $600/Mt fob.

NH3 Canada NH3 Canada makes the NH3 500 - Standalone Fuel Synthesizer about the size of two refrigerators side-by-side, capable of producing 500 litres/day - 20 litres/hr., or 130 (US) Gal/day - 5.5 Gal./hr. 7.5kWh/l, 2 litres of Water + 7.5 KWhrs of Electricity = 1 litre of NH3. While not explicilty disclosed, this efficiency specification is comparable to an electrolysis-to-Haber Bosch "EHB" ammonia production process.
AFC Energy AFC Energy is developing 250kW platinum-free Alkaline Fuel Cells in a project called Alkammonia: a grant of up to €1.96m allows AFC to continue to develop its knowledge of different hydrogen supply feedstocks for integration with its fuel cell system. Initial laboratory tests have indicated that the technology will integrate well with ammonia-fed systems. This project will expand knowledge in the area and lead to an initial integrated system design. Successful completion of the Alkammonia Project could lead to proliferation of Direct Ammonia Fuel Cell (DAFC) based grid feed-in.


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Magnesium Hydride (MgH2)


   Several forms of hydrogen storage exist on the market today. The most promising technology, Magnesium Hydride modularized in the form of ISO standard shipping containers, warrants discussion here.

Company Name

Technology Specifications

McPhy Energy Magnesium Hydride (MgH2), Hydrogen Storage in the form of ISO Standard shipping containers presently in production, TRL9, stores 700kg of H2. Considering a kg (H2) is of equivalent energy to a gallon of gasoline (gge), one McPhy container represents a substantial fraction of forecourt storage requirements. Most noteworthy, McPhy claims the storage/retrieval round trip efficiency of 97%, the most efficient form of H2 storage.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses that testing and redesign for robustness to greater than 3g(rms) shock and vibration environments could add a year to development timeline for oceanic applications. Candidate MgH2 storage configurations on mobile hybrid structures will thus be evaluated specific to: 97% round-trip efficiency; a $1,200,000 capital cost (estimated ceiling); and kg (H2) or kWh electricity price targets will be set from which to work backwards to estimate operating margin.


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Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC)


   Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) are very well suited to Combined Heat and Power Co-generation schemes. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC's) have applicability in both transportation and grid storage and thus will be considered here.

Company Name

Technology Specifications

Idaho National Labs Researching Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC), Hydrogen generation in the form of High Temperature Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells presently in development, TRL5, showing promise of H2 electrolysis of 79% to 90% efficiency including stack and balance of plant. The ceramic materials in SOEC's have demonstrated lower cost, higher durability, and less susceptibility to poisoning compared to established DuPont Nafion® Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells and electrolyzers.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses that testing and redesign for robustness to greater than 3g(rms) shock and vibration environments could add a year to development timeline for oceanic applications. Candidate SOEC configurations on mobile hybrid structures will thus be evaluated specific to: 80% round-trip efficiency; a $1,200,000 capital cost (estimated ceiling); and kg (H2) or kWh price targets will be set from which to work backwards to estimate operating margin. All U.S. National Laboratories offer very attractive out-licensing terms for their technologies.

Ceramatec, Inc. Ceramatec, Inc. manufactures Solid Oxide Electrolytes (Ceramics), Hydrogen generation in the form of High Temperature Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells TRL5, Ceramatec continues on-going research in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), and likely will see, if not already completed the above INL SOEC project through to production.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses that testing and redesign for robustness to greater than 3g(rms) shock and vibration environments could add a year to development timeline for oceanic applications. Candidate SOEC configurations on mobile hybrid structures will thus be evaluated specific to: 80% round-trip efficiency; a $1,200,000 capital cost (estimated ceiling); and kg (H2) or kWh price targets will be set from which to work backwards to estimate operating margin.

UTC Power Utilizing Solid Oxide Electrolytes (Ceramics), UTC Power provides SOFC, PEM, and other Fuel Cell technologies, and especially their PureCell® product line leads in natural gas SOFC's for transportation and stationary applications. Therefore, being part of the UTC conglomerate, UTC Power certainly has the wherewithal to bring the above High Temperature Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells to market.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ recognizes UTC's leadership in SOFC's for the transportation sector. While UTC Power does not offer an SOEC product, it clearly has all the components necessary, and would enter this market if profitable. Thus, UTC Power fits well as a prime consortium candidate.


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Compressed Hydrogen


   Hydrogen electrolyzers, compressors, and cylinders will be considered here.

Company Name

Technology Specifications

Bright Green Hydrogen Bright Green Hydrogen in conjunction with Bright Green Business, and the Mid and East Lothian Chamber of Commerce (MELCC) is part of the wider company The Business Partnership Ltd.Through grants provided by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), Scottish Enterprise (SE), The Scottish Government (through Natural Scotland), Alsherra Developments, The Energy Saving Trust (EST), and our parent company the Business Partnership Ltd, the Hydrogen Office Demonstration Project project came alive.
Quantum Technologies 70MPa Compressed Hydrogen Storage in the form of 129L Type IV H2 composite cylinders Tanks. Integrated systems comprise fuel metering devices and patented Type IV ‘all-composite' high pressure vessels for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and H2. Presently in production, TRL9, stores 5kg of H2 with a 5 year service life. Quantum has designed and manufactured ultra light weight type-IV pressure vessels up to 900 liters.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses that these tanks have been tested for automotive applications and thus withstand greater than 3g(rms) shock and vibration environments. However, storage configurations on mobile hybrid structures will be evaluated specific to: 60% estimated H2 compressor efficiency; and 200 units, or storage for 1000 Kg(H2), and compressor must cost less than $1,200,000 capital cost (estimated ceiling); and kg (H2) or kWh price targets will be set from which to work backwards to estimate operating margin.

NEL Hydrogen NEL Hydrogen designed and marketed the Atmospheric Electrolyser Type 5040 which according to NREL has the ability to produce forecourt scale volume of 434 kg-H2 per hour at 73% efficiency. The Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses a TRL8, as much as a year mostly for testing and some redesign for a 3g(rms) shock and vibration environment. Should NEL Hydrogen pursue adapting their Type 5040 KOH (Potassium Hydroxide Alkali) Atmospheric Electrolyser for Chlor-Alkali Direct Seawater Electrolysis for cost reduction purposes in developing the immediate application of recovery of deep water stranded Ocean Renewable Energy, then TRL7 applies, or a total of about two years of development.
ITM Power ITM Power , makes hydrogen storage tanks for automotive applications. Involved with the EcoIsland project on the Isle of Wight, ITM claims to have produced systems which can compress, store and dispense hydrogen at 350bar, which can be used as a vehicle fuel or a energy-storage medium for electricity generation via combustion or in a fuel cell. The company is running a project called GridGas which envisages using excess electricity from wind farms to split water, storing the hydrogen generated by electrolysis and selling it onto the gas network when demand rises.
Dynatek Industries, Ltd. Compressed Hydrogen Storage, Dynetek provides safe, certified and cost-effective hydrogen storage for automotive, transit buses, stationary storage and bulk hauling applications in pressures ranging from 3000psi to (200bar) to 6500psi (450bar). Dynetek successfully developed a 12500psi (825bar) cylinder for stationary storage applications to be used in conjunction with a 10,000psi (700bar) onboard storage system.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses that while Dynatek appears more focused on delivery of H2 cylinders compared to Quantum (above), and clearly offers TRL9 products likely rated for greater than 3g(rms) shock and vibration environments, H2 compression is relatively low efficiency compared to a system comprising SSAS, SOEC and MgH2 storage, and may be more capital intensive.

RE Hydrogen, Ltd. Combined Hydrogen Electrolysis and Compression Storage, RE Hydrogen claims unique advantages over competing electrolyzer and compressor manufacturers including: 70% lower cost electrolyzer; 70% lower cost, 50% more efficient compressor; Use of non precious metal catalyst; Much longer electrolyzer service life; and 70% lower cost robust, rugged compressor up to 10,000psi (700bar) for a cost of £75/kW ($120/kW) compared the conventional pressurised electrolyser’s stack costing £2000/kW on the market; and scalable to MW.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses RE Hydrogen's electrolyzer and compressor system is at TRL7, with MW scale systems due in 2014. RE Hydrogen's claim of hydrogen at £3.6/kg given electricity cost of £0.04/kWh indeed marks a substantial cost advantage over existing technologies. Therefore the electrolysis and compression subsystems will cost $120,000 for a MW scale electrolyzer. Their claimed 5kW electrolyser producing up to 2.3 kg hydrogen per day implies 76% High Heat Value (H2 HHV) efficiency. RE Hydrogen's claims their compressor is "50% more efficient", without a firm compressor efficiency number on their website. Combined electrolyszer and compressor efficiency is uncertain, 76% "too good to be true (?)", from which to base break-even analysis. While the efficiency may or may not lead other compression technologies, RE Hydrogen leads in lowest capital expenditure.

Perma Pure, LLC. Nafion® Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) primarily for fuel cells. While Nafion® PEM's in electrolysis cells exhibit 60%-70% efficiency and therefore less likely a candidate configuration, PermaPure could fit well as a prime consortium candidate.
Proton OnSite formerly Proton Energy Systems Proton designed and marketed the HOGEN RE® hydrogen generation system expressly for stranded Renewable Energy. The HOGEN RE® hydrogen generation system incorporates a proven hydrogen generation platform, a sophisticated DC to DC power converter and a flexible software operating system that allows for several modes of operation. The Hogen C series has a 61% (H2 HHV) efficiency consuming 64.8kWh/kg(H2). Thus, the Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses a TRL6 should Proton engage in developing the immediate application of recovery of deep water stranded Ocean Renewable Energy.
Teledyne Energy Systems Teledyne designed and marketed the Titan HM series hydrogen generation system in cooperation with NREL. The Titan HM series boasts a UPS and an advanced Human Machine Interface (HMI) that allows for remote operation. With the Titan HM series having comparable performance to the Proton HOGEN RE® series, the Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses a TRL6 should Teledyne engage in developing the immediate application of recovery of deep water stranded Ocean Renewable Energy. Teledyne could fit well as a prime consortium candidate.
Hydrogenics Corporation Hydrogenics Corporation offers both Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) and Alkaline Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte H2 electrolyzers. The HySTAT-A Hydrogen Generator, presently in the field, TRL9, being of alkaline electrolyte type indicates expertise applicable to Chlor-Alkali i.e. Direct Seawater Electrolysis which would eliminate cost of KOH feedstock and the efficiency loss of distilling seawater. With the Hydrogenics HySTAT-A having comparable performance to the Teledyne Titan HM and the Proton HOGEN RE® series above, the Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses a TRL4 should Hydrogenics engage in developing the immediate application of recovery of deep water stranded Ocean Renewable Energy using Direct Seawater Electrolysis.
Analytic Power, LLC Analytic Power, LLC completed research under DoE SBIR Phase 1 funding in high efficiency 5000psi Electrochemical H2 compressors. Analytic Power developed an electrochemical hydrogen compressor as a highly modular, isothermal device with no moving parts. The Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses a TRL4 barring technical difficulties prevented progress to SBIR Phase 2. Because Analytic Power also conducts fundamental research in ammonia and hydrogen SOFC's/SOEC's, it could fit well as a consortium candidate.
Avālence, LLC Avālence, LLC produces reliable and cost-efficient ultra-high-pressure H2 directly in the electrolysis cells. The Avālence Hydrofiller 5000 produces up to 300kg(H2)/day at a claimed 70% efficiency and at Maximum Rated Pressure up to 6,500 psi. With a modular arrangement of cell arrays, systems can be easily modified and ganged to meet larger capacity hydrogen output than that of any given Hydrofiller module. The Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ assesses although sitll under development, the Hydrofiller 5000 has a TRL8 because it merely scales up Avālence technology already in the field. The Hydrofiller 5000 product description claims 70% efficiency, when, if it requires 750kW to produce 300kg(H2) per day, that implies a 66% (H2 HHV) efficiency.
H2 Technologies H2 Technologies , features Sonochemistry, i.e.ultrasonic transducers in an electrolyser to enhance the efficiency of hydrogen production

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ has ongoing conversations with H2 Technologies as both corporations have strong interest in hydgrogen production particularly around The Big Island, Hawaii. Also, Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ is presently looking into the possibility of engaging the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority (NELHA) as a test bed for Turbofoil® development, with whom H2 Technologies has well-established relations and leadership.


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Charging Batteries


   We will also consider several battery companies, particularly those that have already sold products specifically for marine ship power management applications, but also those products extensible to distributed Electric Vehicle (EV) battery-backed Smart Grid applications. Although present day battery technology ostensibly proves to be prohibitively expensive and of undesirably low energy density for bulk energy storage, one exceptional business case for high efficiency battery storage shows immediate marketability, EV battery recharging using Ocean Renewable Energy where the end user at the forecourt swaps EV batteries in minutes, instead of charging. Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ sees potential in adding value to Better Place's supply chain, in one case by supplying container modules delivering many end user's charged batteries to distribute to various points of sale or another case, containers of energy needed for on-site recharging prior to point of sale. The logisitics behind which of these two cases is most efficient has yet to be worked out. Nonetheless, Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ seeks to form a consortium wherein development and operations partners may engage with the below battery manufactures and other prime consortium candidates.

Company Name

Technology Specifications

EnerVault EnerVault builds large-scale energy storage systems for the modern electric grid. Its patented redox flow battery technology offers commercial, industrial, renewables and utility customers a safe and reliable way to reduce their long-term energy costs. EnerVault's patented Engineered Cascade™ technology that transforms an inherently safe Redox Flow Battery chemistry into highly economic and reliable storage solutions.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will work with General Motors (GM) and ABB Group over the next year to study the performance of a platform containing five used Chevrolet Volt batteries that provides 25 kilowatts of power and 50 kilowatt-hours of energy. Although the energy density of EV batteries is low, the used EV battery secondary market stands to reduce the over cost of battery storage. Furthmore, because round-trip efficiency of battery to grid is superior to all other technologies listed here, reduction in cost of used EV batteries could substantially impact market dynamics.
Yardney Technbical Products, Inc. Lithium Ion, Aluminum Air and Zinc Batteries for Marine and Defense Applications. Lithium Ion Energy Density - 358Wh/L, 145Wh/Kg; life - 2100 deep cycles; Discharge capability Continuous 10C rate, Pulse 50C rate; Rapid recharge capability - C rate; operating temperature range -40° C to +65° C. Aluminum Air 2.85kWh; and ZInc >185 Wh/kg and energy densities of >700 Wh/L.
ElectricFuel, Inc. Zn Air for UAV, UMV (milspec) applications.
ReVolt Technology, Inc. Zinc Flow Air Battery (ZFAB), up to 4 times the energy density of Lithium-Ion batteries at comparable or lower production cost; Extended battery life due to stable reaction zone, low rates of dry-out and flooding, and no pressure build-up problems; Rechargeability: Controlled deposition with no short-circuit, high mechanical stability; Safety: Zinc is a non-toxic clean solution, neither flammable nor explosive, a natural resource that is globally abundant.
Fluidic Energy, Inc. Zn Air (w/ Ionic Liquid Electrolyte) theoretically "an order of magnitude greater energy density", and if so, is well suited for ocean energy conversion mobile structures. TRL3
Premium Power, Inc. Highly publicized Vanadium "Redox Flow" ion battery technology: 500kW Power, 3MWh ~88gge demonstrates "undesirably low energy density" storage in a truck trailer 53'L x 9.5'W x13.5'H, fully autonomous remote operation, "reduced Capital Expenditure". TRL3
Aquion Energy, Inc. Aqueous Hybrid Ion (AHI) energy storage chemistry sodium solution-based electrolyte with manganese electrodes, Aquion has targeted $200/kWh for the cost of the battery comparable to the selling price of Lead Acid batteries with the advantages over lead-acid being lower toxicity and a recharge life of 5,000 deep cycles. However, at $200/kWh a battery system of capacity of 1000gge would cost $6.8M, prohibitively expensive. TRL3
Ambri Ambri, formerly Liquid Metal Battery Corporation founded by Donald Sadoway, professor of material sciences/chemistry at MIT as seen on TEDx, is developing vanadium and magnesium flow batteries. Although the abundance of vanadium and magnesium ensures substantial cost reductions, nonetheless, the present-day energy density of these batteries still limits their applicability to stationary applications in relatively large areas.


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Flywheels


   Flywheels have the advantages of field proven long service life as old as Watt's steam engines, and robustness to greater than 3g(rms) shock and vibration environments proven in automotive applications.

   Gyroscopic procession in mobile applications has been addressed, and may acutually provide horizontal stability mechanically by mounting the flywheel in a gyroscope while optmally capturing and transmitting sporadic hydrokinetic ocean energy captured by the Turbofoil® to the bulk Energy Supply Unit (ESU).

   Flywheel energy densities ostensibly substantially outperform the best battery chemistry to date, although still far from the energy density of ammonia or various H2 forms of storage. However, storage efficiency of flywheels is highly time dependent, and mobile applications increase bearing friction further reducing efficiency, exhibiting possibly the fastest self-discharge rate of all the above storage technologies, and thus viability of long term bulk storage applications is questionable. Nonetheless Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ sees applicability of Flywheel TRL9 technology especially in critical Surge Power Units (SPU) in ship power management and thus consider here these companies and their products:

Company Name

Technology Specifications

Thrustcycle Enterprises Thrustcycle Enterprises has working protoypes of flywheel two-wheel vehicles with gryoscope mountng to enhance stability. Integrated Power Technology Corporation has an established rapport with Thrustcycle's management after meeting with their president at the Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, August, 2012.

Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ has plans for joint ventures in penetrating the Hawaii Renewable Energy market with Thrustcycle Enterprises in future strategic partnering in the prototype and pilot stages of Turbofoil® development.

Vycon A California based Flywheel energy system manufacturer won a $3.6 million contract to decrease energy consumption at Los Angeles Metro Red Line Westlake/MacArthur Park Subway Station. Vycon boasts the ability to use braking power from one train to move another, or to capture energy generated in a shipyard crane’s lowering cycle to lift the next container, as well as supporting Datacenter UPS apllications.
Flybrid Automotive Limited The core Flybrid technology relates to design, development, manufacture and control of high-speed flywheels for use in moving vehicles. Patents for vacuum sealing systems, bearing lubrication, safety and containment systems compliment trade secrets and know-how developed during the application of this technology to many different vehicles.
Williams Hybrid Power The Williams Hybrid Power electric flywheel has high specific power allowing a lightweight, compact installation for applications requiring high power transfer such as a hybrid city bus, tram, or performance automobiles. WHP's electric flywheel transfers energy to a hybrid transmission by electric cables only, allowing vehicle packaging flexibility not possible with a mechanical flywheel counterpart.
Beacon Power, LLC Beacon Power LLC offers the Smart Energy 25 flywheel which stores 25kWh (almost three-quarters of a gge) when rotating at 16,000rpm. TRL9, with a rated lifetime of 20 years with little to no maintenance. With the ability to deliver 100kW of surge power on demand, the Smart Energy 25 performs field-proven grid frequency regulation. Beacon Power plans for its next generation flywheel to have 100kWh (~3gge) capacity and cost less than $0.04/kWh, with earth quake survivability (shock and vibration resilient) features.
PowerThru Inc. PowerThru serves multiple market sectors with their stationary flywheels. While PowerThru provides limited technical data on their website, they do boast "1/10th the energy consumption of other flywheels" at 300W, and a seismic zone 4 rating, implying some robustness to shock and vibration.


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Supercapacitors


   Supercapacitors power densities substantially outperform the best battery chemistry to date, although still far from the energy density of ammonia or various H2 forms of storage. However, storage efficiency of Supercapacitors is highly time dependent exhibiting a faster self-discharge rate of all the above battery storage technologies, and thus viability of long term bulk storage applications is questionable. Nonetheless because of their superior power density, Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ sees applicability of Supercapacitor TRL9 technology especially in critical Surge Power Units (SPU) pre-Flywheel in ship power management and thus consider here these companies and their products:

Company Name

Technology Specifications

JSR Micro JSR Micro, a leader in Lithium Ion Capacitor (LIC) supercapacitor technology, their Ultimo® LIC has applications in Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems for their impulse response characteristics and particularly Surge Power Units (SPU) of Turbofoil® -equipped vessels.


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Direct Seawater Electrolysis


   A complete evaluation of storage technologies necessarily includes Direct Seawater Electrolysis, apparently 80% efficient in Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach) NaOCl production. Mankind has put knowledge in the process of seawater electrolysis to practical use for over one hundred years, only as a means of caustic soda (Lye) NaOH and Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach) NaOCl production. Thus, the engineering research goal here serves to modify the well known process of producing bleach at the anode, only now controlling the previously considered product bleach as a by-product in a reaction favoring O2 production. Hence, we focus on optimizing the technology for using the least cost feedstock seawater through least cost catalysts in the anodes and cathodes for most efficient H2 electrolysis and production of O2 and other environmental remediation reagents.

Company Name

Technology Specifications

AquaHydrex AquaHydrex develops technologies that involve novel catalytic processes that enhance the efficient electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen, including nano coatings encapsulating electrodes to minimize NaOCl evolution during direct seawater electrolysis.. AquaHydrex technologies are the culmination of years of research that has taken place within the University of Wollongong (UOW) and Monash University nodes of ACES as well other Australian Research Council (ARC) supported projects at Monash University.
Mitusbishi Heavy Industries Mitusbishi Heavy Industries serves seawater electrolysis markets and researched MnO2 Manganese Dioxide electrodes for high O2 evolution at the seawater (chlor-akali) electrolyzer anode. Tungsten, Molybdenum, and Manganese dioxide coated anodes for sea water electrolysis that improve oxygen evolution are under development. Mitusbishi Heavy Industries also has great interest in environmental remediation chlor-akali environmental remediation here, and especially here. Both their research area of interest and status as a large congomerate makes Mitsubishi Heavy Industries a desirable prime consortium candidate. The Turbofoil® Japan Patent held by Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ and its other pending Japan patents may bring exceptional value to HMI's seawater electrolysis business objectives. TRL6
Daiki Engineering Co. Ltd. Daiki Engineering Co. Ltd. apparently a subsidiary of the huge Japanese conglomerate Hitachi, continously conducts research in MnO2 Manganese Dioxide electrodes for Direct Seawater Electrolysis and has a product line of chlor-akali electrolyzer equipment. Both their research area of interest and relationship with a large congomerate makes Daiki Engineering a desirable prime consortium candidate. TRL6

Ceram Hyd Ceram Hyd developed a proprietary ionic exchange membrane technology with applications in the field of hydrogen production, fuel cells, chlor-alkali industries and water treatment. Its flagship product, the CeraPEM Electrolyser CW-1000 produces HypoChlorous Acid (HClO) for water treatment, as well as Caustic (Lye, NaOH) in industrial quantities. Also their CeraPEM Electrolyser CH-50 utilitizes Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), obviously demonstrating the Proton Exchange Membrane's (PEM) resistance to Sulfur. While CeraPEM's CH-50 Electrolyser does not precisely fit the present Direct Seawater Electrolysis application due to its small scale H2 production and its H2SO electrolyte requirement, the CeraPEM PEM itself exhibits perfect applicability to Direct Seawater Electrolysis with its resilience to Sulfur and Chlorine, which poison other PEM types, and especially due to its high current density (up to 3A/cm2) capability. The we assess a TRL6 for their PEM.

SERC Schatz Energy Research Center located relatively proximate to Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ in California, manages a highly recommended test site for collaboration in High Pressure chlor-akali electrolyzer development.

Hydrogenics Corporation Hydrogenics Corporation could participate in accelerating Direct Seawater Electrolysis technology for H2 production due to its experience with KOH alkali electrolysis closely related to seawater electrolysis. Compared to KOH Alkali electrolysis, Direct Seawater (Chlor-Alkali) Electrolysis eliminates the cost of distillation and handling the hazardous substance KOH, while producing environmental reagents.
SOFC/SOEC Manu. All SOFC/SOEC manufacturers could participate to accelerate Direct Seawater Electrolysis for H2 production due ceramic solid oxide electrolyte resilience to poisoning from seawater impurities, eliminating the cost of distillation.


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Carbon-Neutral Hydrocarbon Reactors


   As of 2013, Integrated Power Technology Corporation™ has commenced research in Carbon Fuel reactors. Although this is a new form of reactor, it holds promises of providing a "drop-in" liquid fuel from renewable resources, replacing fossil fuels in all present-day liquid fuel applications with absolutely no change to extant transportation and chemical industry infrastructure. Based on the Fischer-Tropsch Process, also promised is remarkable process efficiency equivalent to that of Solid State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS). The inputs typical to these new forms of reactors generally are electricity, air (or sequestered CO2), and water, or in some cases, Seawater can provide both the H2 and the CO2 as feedstock for the liquid fuel. It is "Carbon-Neutral" because upon use in distributed systems such as automobiles, the carbon removed from the environment will likely return to the environment. However, the SOX typical of fossil feedstock based fuels such as sour crude oil will not exist in substantial quantities for this renewable carbon neutral fuel.

Company Name

Technology Specifications

PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), a Xerox company, is in the Business of Breakthroughs®. Practicing open innovation, custom R&D services, technology, expertise, best practices, and intellectual property to Fortune 500 and Global 1000 companies, startups, and government agencies and partners. PARC creates new business options, accelerates time to market, augments internal capabilities, and reduces risk for clients. Their portfolio includes CO2 extraction from seawater and production of ethanol and methanol from oceans using hydrogen electrolysed from water and captured CO2 based on bipolar membrane electrodialysis, BPMED. PARC also published a brief overview of their related work for DARPA contracts NBCHC090074 and HR001-10-C-0147.
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company’s (EMRE) Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) process converts coal to high quality clean gasoline when coupled with commercially proven coal gasification and methanol synthesis technology.
Celanese Celanese is helping to meet the world’s increasing demand for liquid transportation fuel with its innovative TCX® Technology for the production of ethanol. Built on the company’s industry-leading acetyl platform Celanese TCX® Technology is ideal for producing fuel-grade ethanol and industrial-grade ethanol.
Air Fuel Synthesis Air Fuel Synthesis uses renewable energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into synthetic hydrocarbon liquids. Synthetic carbon-neutral fuels can be made “to spec” - no need to remove impurities by refining crude fossil oil into specific fuel types. Any fuel or crude-oil based material can ultimately also be made from synthetic hydrocarbons produced by the AFS process. This includes methanol, gasoline, diesel, lubricants and waxes as well as plastics and building materials, some of which have other substitutes, but few as useful and versatile as a hydrocarbon base. Similar to the Integrated Power Technology Corporation™, Air Fuel Synthesis is seeking strategic partners to complement their energy conversion fuel storage systems.
Liquid Light Liquid Light is commercializing new catalysts for the efficient and affordable conversion of carbon dioxide to a wide variety of single-carbon, multi-carbon, and high value chemicals. Liquid Light is based in New Jersey with a core team from the likes of DARPA and the labs of the DOE, Berkeley, and Princeton.
Carbon Recycling International Carbon Recycling International, (CRI) captures carbon dioxide from industrial emissions and converts carbon dioxide into Renewable Methanol (RM). Carbon Recycling International has developed Emission to Liquid (ETL) technology that consists of a system of electrolytic cracking and catalytic synthesis. Its headquarters are in Iceland and an office in La Jolla, California, USA.


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Polymer Nanobead H2 Storage


   Polymer Nanobead H2 Storage has recently emerged as a research topic promising high density hydrgen storage in a medium that can replace exisiting liquid fuels. While this is a relatively new form of hydrogen storage, it has the potential to attain rapid adoption as it already has demonstrated field reliability, and certain advantages over existing hydrogen storage technologies.

Company Name

Technology Specifications

Cella Energy The Cella technology is based around the encapsulation and nano-structuring of chemical hydrides in plastic. This means that they can be handled in air, and allows the hydrogen to be released quickly and cleanly upon heating. Cella makes the nano-hydrides into plastic-like pellets; heating one gram of Cella’s pellets will produce one litre of hydrogen (at normal pressures and temperatures). Cella's materials are already performing at 9wt% weight percentage of hydrogen, which when packaged into systems, like those for the battery replacement work or when used in vehicles, they approach the DOE’s 2017 target of 5.5 weight % hydrogen. The Cella Energy materials can be stored safely at ambient temperatures and pressures; this means that the Cella Energy hydrogen storage materials can be packaged in a regular shaped fuel tank. The Cella Energy hydrogen storage materials can be manufactured using existing large scale industrial manufacturing processes; processes that are cheap and widely used.


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Conclusion


    Completing evaluation of storage technologies we propose three main delivery strategies per unit energy serving their respective markets. Each energy delivery medium has unique market opportunities as detailed above. We input the following confirmed or conservatively estimated critical parameters into our analysis for each storage and delivery strategy, a complete energy storage subsystem budgeted at $1.2M with a target capacity of 1000gge, complete subsystem weighing 50 tonnes (2%wt effective) or less in the oceanic mobile structure:

   Therefore, in our break-even analysis, we evaluate candidate configurations of mobile hybrid structures specific to each geographic location proposed, based on delivery of kWh of electricity, kg-H2, or Metric Tonnes of Ammonia, and the particular configuration of hybrid ocean energy conversion mobile structure best suited for that particular geographic location. For instance, in a geographic location best suited for a configuration performing Hybrid Hydrokinetic energy comversion, we will evaluate a H2 storage technology comprizing H2 Direct Seawater Electrolysis and Compressors and tanks storing H2.


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